They are two schools. But a look at the schools present a contrasting fortune. One is private, the other is public. ONWUKA NZESH I and CALEB ONWE report
It is often said that education is the greatest legacy one can bequeath to one’s children. It is also regarded as the greatest investment a nation can make on its citizens if it must raise the quality human capital needed to drive its socio- economic and political growth for overall national development.
Annually, the Federal Government of Nigeria devotes enormous resources to education but sadly, this is not enough to meet the challenges in the sector. Since the colonial times, western education has been embraced by Nigerian communities in varying degrees.
Some have taken it as a priority while others still lag behind because they do not seem to fully understand the grave implications of living in ignorance. Although education is on the concurrent legislative list, neither the federal nor the state government has done enough in the sector.
This was the reason the sector was liberalized to allow private sector participation, which had begun to produce outstanding results. The recent commissioning of Brookstone/Northern Coalition of UK Universities (NCUK) International Foundation School in Abuja was a source of excitement for the city.
It is the icing on the cake for Brookstone Schools, which has, for many years, provided quality nursery, primary and secondary educational opportunities for young Nigerians. The school is a private initiative, designed to provide state of the art facilities to produce a conducive teaching and learning environment.
For those parents seeking the best university education abroad for their children and wards especially in the United Kingdom, a new vista has opened with the commissioning of the Abuja Centre of Brookstone/ NCUK as they have direct access to 16 Universities in the UK after a year foundation school. It is a more modern version of what used to be known as the Higher School Certificate (HSC) programme.
The commissioning coincided with the First Educational Fair of the School in Abuja as well as a celebration for winning the Best Academic Award at NCUK Partner Conference 2016. Chairman, House Committee on Basic Education and Services, Hon. Zakari Mohammed, who was at the ceremony where the award was presented, noted that Brookstone had achieved a rare feat in the country.
The NCUK has over 30 Centres globally, including partnerships in Kenya, UK, Ireland, China, Japan, South Korea, Columbia in South America, but gave the award to Brookstone International Foundation School for being their best academic partner in the world. Mohammed, said that education is the bedrock of civilization and that Nigeria and Britain have always had a healthy partnership, especially in the education sector.
He said the private sector participation had become very essential in education as the government cannot do all that is necessary to ensure quality education for all. He commended the Chairman of the Governing Board of Brookstone Schools, Mr Kalada Apiafi and his wife, Betty for their vision and tenacity of purpose in setting up the school. According to the Mohammed, it would be impossible for the teeming youths in the country to get the right type of education unless the government created an enabling environment for private sector participation in the sector.
“Definitely, what you should know is that whatever you’re doing, people are watching you. So, I believe that hard work was translated here today and the award, I wish them well. But it is the beginning of better things to come for the school,” he said.
The British High Commissioner to Nigeria, Mr. Paul Arkwright, who was among the several dignitaries at the event, said it was wrong for people to say the United Kingdom does not give visas to students wishing to study in the UK.
According to him, over 90 per cent of visa request from Nigeria is approved. “Some people think that perhaps, the UK government approach to Nigerian student, that we don’t want them in the UK is wrong. Indeed, we value very highly Nigerian students.
“I don’t know how many Nigerian students you think are currently studying in British Universities. It’s about 18,000. That’s the fourth largest international group. I don’t know whether you know that over 90 per cent of all visa applications to study in the UK are approved… not rejected, approved, for Nigerians who want to study in the UK.
“There’s been an increase in 8 per cent in the number of students since 2009/2010 and we do hope the growth will continue as awareness of the quality of the overall education experience in the UK continue to increase.”
Marketing Development Executive for NCUK, Andrew Straughan, disclosed that Brookstone got the award because: “Throughout the three years we have worked with them, they have continued to display the very highest quality both in terms of the academic support they can give to their students and also through the pastoral process. “We feel that Brookstone demonstrates the key qualities which is why we thought it was very apt to give them the award. It is an award to be very proud of for Brookstone and we are happy to give them the award too,” he said.
Chairman, Board of Governors, Mr. Kalada Apiafi, said the International Foundational Year is a progression of the school’s strategic plan. “We started our Nursery and Primary in 2003 and we proceeded to open the secondary school in 2006.
Then, we partnered with NCUK to establish an international foundation year Programme in 2013. And here we are setting up an international Foundation Year Programme in Abuja in 2017,” Apiafi said.
The abandoned school
A few kilometres away from the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), in the neighbouring state of Nasarawa, is a community, called Jigwada. The community is home to several indigent people, whose major occupation is farming. They are mainly peasant farmers born and bred in the rural community.
Many are illiterates and seem comfortable with their lives as farmers and pastorialists. However, some of the natives, who appear to have seen the benefits of education and want to bequeath a different legacy to their children, are worried that the opportunity for this new dream to be realized may have been mortgaged by self-serving politicians, who only come to the community to canvass for votes during electioneering campaigns.
Their fears are not unfounded and the evidence of lack of government attention not farfetched. There is a total abandonment of the only basic education facility in the community – the Local Education Authority (LEA) primary school built in 1976.
The school, with a population of about 261 pupils and eight teachers, has only one block of two class rooms, with no single desk or chairs for the pupils and their teachers. In each of the two classroom, one could see that the pupils sit on stones hewn from rocks.
The residents of Jigwada, especially those who cannot afford to send their children and wards to the private schools in the city; are not only worried that this 41-year old dilapidated primary school is an obstacle to their dreams, but that there seem to be no ray of hope for the community.
One of parents, a man who identified himself as Usman, said that many people have withdrawn their children and wards from the school, for the fear that the old building could collapse on the children and cause unquantifiable damages.
“My people are taking their children away from the school to other places; they don’t want a situation where the building will fall and kill the children. As you can see, if the rain falls heavily, the remaining part of the structure could fall” he said. The parents are so worried that one of the partially collapsed mud block classroom which is still used by the school, may collapse during the next rainy season on the pupils.
Some of the staff of the school, who spoke to Inside Abuja, revealed that the only motivation they have teaching in the school, is the destiny of the pupils that are at stake if they abandoned them. One of the staff, a man who pleaded anonymity, confided in this reporter that the government does not care about schools in the rural communities, hence, the children sit on the floor to take lessons.
He expressed doubt that government was actually serious about meeting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations. The fourth goal of SDGs, which is to “ensure inclusive and quality education for all and promote lifelong learning” is acutely under threat going by the rate of neglect and decay in the school.
On a visit to the school, Inside Abuja observed that the pupils were in high spirit and displayed interest to learn, but their innocence and pristine desire to obtain quality education as the foundation to securing their future, appeared to have been sacrificed at the altar of insensitive leadership.
The state of the school does not support the claim that the Nasarawa State Government is among the states implementing the Universal Basic Education ( UBE) programme in Nigeria. Another staff of the school, who also pleaded anonymity, told Inside Abuja that the school and the community have called the attention of government to the gory state of infrastructure in the school, but no positive response has ever come from there.
“I cannot mention how many times we have cried to the government through the Local Council. We have also done a written complaint which we submitted at the Education Secretariat in Lafia, the state capital. The language those in authority have been using each time we talk about this school to them is we are coming.
“When I came to this school, there were some desk for the pupils but overtime, the desks and chairs got broken because the classrooms were not secured. Drug addicts, who come to hide in the school destroyed the desk and chairs, and the debris were later packed away by some people around the school vicinity and used as firewood.
“The pupils sit on the floor, the heaps of dust and stones which you can see inside the classrooms are their seats. They place their books on their laps, as table. Even the teachers do not have seats. The few seats we have here for teachers were bought by the teachers”
“If it begins to rain, we usually take the children away from the collapsed rooms without roof to the places that have roof. We have primary 1-6 managing these two classrooms” she said.
Inside Abuja learnt that once it begins to rain, lessons are abruptly brought to an end, to avert tragedy that may arise from building collapse, since no one can vouch for the integrity of the building, made of mud blocks over 40 years ago.
Inside Abuja also observed that the manageable two classrooms, were donated to the school through Education Trust Fund project of 2004. This is attested to by the already fading inscription on the building.
Intervention on the way
The continued tears of the school and community for help may soon dry up, with the coming of a Non Governmental Organisation, The Great Johnson Foundation, which has indicated interest to give a face lift to the abandoned school.
Chairman of the Foundation, Mr. Ahkere Johnson, who was in Jigwada, recently with his team to flag off his ” school support program”, said that his unflinching belief that development of human capital was an enormous task that should not be left to the government alone, motivated him to move his school rescue train to the community. Johnson noted that based on his research, “public schools represent a crucial opportunity for the development of social cohesion in Nigeria communities.
“There is almost no other arena in which people of diverse ethnic, racial and economic backgrounds come together and interact so closely and continuously. Public schools provide an essential place in which trust between groups can be fostered and relationship strengthened” he said. He promised that work on rehabilitation of the school will soon start.
Politicking with peoples’ destiny
Meanwhile, the Chairman, Interim Management Committee(IMC) of Keffi Local Government Area, Mr. Ismaila Nuhu, in whose territory, the abandoned school is located, denied the fact that the school was neglected by government.
Nuhu, who was thankful that the Foundation has come to reduce the burden on the shoulder of his council, however, said that the decayed infrastructure in the school was not a peculiar feature of the LEA School, nor the characteristics of all the governmentowned schools throughout the country. “The school is not neglected. If it is neglected, you will see it. This is the characteristics of all schools in Nigeria”, he said.
On allegations that there was an order purportedly from the state government, that the media should not be allowed to show the dilapidated structure to the public, the IMC chairman, also denied it, stating that if the state government was not comfortable with the intervention of the Foundation, he would have declined the invitation to be at the flag off ceremony.
The Chief Inspector of Schools in the Council, who simply identified himself as Abdulkarim, said he would not talk to the press, because he had no authority to talk about the abandonment of the school.
Confronting unemployment with skills acquisition
As unemployment continues to fester in the country, governments and other stakeholders, who are bent on winning the battle, have continued to evolve new strategies for more effective attack against the common enemy. CALEB ONWE reports
The creation of three million jobs annually was one of the campaign promises of the All Progressives Congress (APC), the ruling party in Nigeria. Now, the fulfilment of that promise in the fashion that would meet the expectations of the masses, appears not to have been feasible.
The expectations of Nigerians, especially those in the labour market was a magical expansion in availability of white collar jobs in the government establishments, oil companies and other private corporations.
These expectations, however, became a mirage, following ‘ the technical recession’ that almost crippled the economy. Instead of the upsurge in employment opportunities, job losses came like an unwanted harmattan wind, blowing across all sectors of the labour market.
All of a sudden, a new realisation dawned on the stakeholders, that if ” the desirable is not available, the available can become the desirable”. This could be the motivating factor behind the new wave of skills acquisition training that is swiftly blowing across the country.
The realization that the scourge of unemployment would be better tackled by helping people to get relevant skills have started gaining considerable space in the public domain. It appears that both the old and young are seeing the need to change their orientation about employment by laying emphasis on job creation rather than waiting for non existent white collar jobs.
NEPAD’s skills training
The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Nigeria, recently graduated 300 persons, including rural women and youths in its skills acquisition training programme.
These vulnerable members of the society were trained on various skills such as beads-making, cake-baking, soap-making, hair cutting and make-up artistry.
Coordinator of NEPAD, Nigeria, Mrs. Gloria Akobundu, said the training programme was part of its core mandate. NEPAD, Nigeria, Akobundu said, has a mandate to identify policies, projects and programmes of government aimed at promoting good governance, poverty eradication, youth and women empowerment and sustainable growth and development.
“This skill acquisition training is a way of alleviating poverty in the society and reducing the level of unemployment amongst our youths. It was designed to empower women with information necessary for driving economic development.
“Over 300 of you that have acquired various skills in beads, cake, soap making, make-up and barbing will justify the resources government has spent on you in the course of your training with a view to making sure that government achieve its objectives. However, due to paucity of funds, we would not provide starter-packs for all of you except the 150 participants in beads, cake making make-up and barbing classes who were outstanding during the trainings” , she said.
Akobundu told Inside Abuja at the graduation ceremony, that the main targets of the programme were the rural women, and it was being driven by the ideology of ‘ train a woman, train a nation’, which the present administration in Nigeria believes is one of the propelling forces of economic development.
She said that the skills acquisition training would be sustained as a crucial economic empowerment booster in government’s fight against poverty and insecurity in the country. Akobundu also noted that the programme was designed to provide rural women with information necessary for economic emancipation.
Inside Abuja also learnt that NEPAD had included a plan in the blueprint of the training, to ensure that beneficiaries were not abandoned in the ‘middle of the sea’, especially for those of them who may not be able to navigate the economic environment without a guide.
Akobundu disclosed that her agency has a Department of Monitoring and Evaluation that would track the progress of those trained and empowered to establish at least in a micro scale the trade they have learnt.
Inside Abuja’s investigations revealed that not all the 300 beneficiaries of the training got the starter-packs. According to available records, only 150 best performing participants in the programme got the starter packs.
Akobundu explained that “due to paucity of funds, we would not provide starter-packs for all of you except the 150 participants in beads, cake making make-up and barbing classes who were outstanding during the trainings”
Inside Abuja sought the views of some of the participants, who seemed to be happy that the yoke of unemployment have been broken in their lives. Though some expressed mixed feelings, others however were grateful for the opportunity.
Those who were not given the starter- packs, complained bitterly about the exclusion, saying that they were disappointed by not getting something that could boost the knowledge they gained from the training.
Though, they said that the hope of getting either money or material from NEPAD as an initial grant was not lost, they appealed that the value of the training should not be allowed to waste away by neglecting one of their greatest needs, which is access to finance.
One of the beneficiaries of the programme, an 82-year-old woman, Mrs. Rita Onuekwusi, who claimed she spent all her life in Britain, disclosed that her decision to join the skills acquisition training, was not because she lacks entrepreneurial skills, but that she needed to get acquainted with what is obtainable in the Nigerian society.
The octogenarian also said she keyed into the programme to inspire other women who basically waited for their husband’s or children to provide all their needs.
“I joined this programme to inspire other women, who are depending on their husband and children to provide for them always. Such life style is not encouraged in the place where I am coming from. Women should acquire skills that will empower them and make them independent, even at old age. At my age, I have many skills with which I am using to encourage other women,” she said.
Another beneficiary, Ibenene Ebelechukwu, a journalist by profession, said she attended the training to acquire some skills in make-up artistry. She said the training gave her a boost to become her own boss, instead of allowing her time to be controlled by employers.
She told Inside Abuja that she had already established the trade with the knowledge she got from the training. Though, she could not open a shop for the business, but she has attached herself to another makeup artist, just to further hone her skills and products.
“I want to thank NEPAD and the Federal Government for giving us the opportunity to get the training. I don’t have a saloon of my own but have attached to other people and I am already getting calls from customers who are beginning to demand for my services;” she said.
The last line
From Inside Abuja’ observation, most of the beneficiaries of the training may never be able to get loans to start the trade. Though, there was excitement written on their faces over the new skills they acquired, the poverty alleviation process would be not complete if they do not have access to start-up funds to run their small scale businesses.
Saving them from self destruction
Angwan Tivi in Ruga community, a sex den for a good number of men in Abuja, is slowly turning into a HIV-infested den. REGINA OTOKPA reports on a unique case and efforts of a concerned NGO to change the tale of the community
Seventeen-year-old Christiana David (not real name), is five months pregnant and currently infected with the Human Immune Virus (HIV). She is one of the young women engaged in illicit sex trade activities at Angwan Tivi, a settlement within Ruga community in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja.
Growing up like every other child, Christiana never envisaged her life would take this turn until two years ago when her mother, Sarah (not real name), whose husband is late, introduced Christiana and her two sisters into the business of prostitution at the brothel where she has been selling food since 2015.
Showing no remorse her children were involved in such trade, she told Inside Abuja her husband was late and she and her daughters must hustle to survive.
Inside Abuja checks revealed that one of the sisters presently has a child, unsure of whom the father is, while the second recently had an abortion from an unwanted pregnancy.
Meanwhile, Christiana, who still engages in the act with her five-month pregnancy, has not been able to assess antenatal care. It was also observed that men flock in from all parts of Abuja, including Utako, Asokoro, Gwarinpa and the likes, to patronise these ladies. Running free HIV counselling and test for the women engaged in the illicit trade, the Wanda Adu foundation recorded 25 positive cases.
Most of the women and young girls hail from Benue State, but have found their way into the city with the aim of making a living for themselves.
Worried by the developing trend and committed towards changing the tale about Angwan Tivi, founder of the foundation, Wanda Ebe, has commenced a two weeks training and empowerment exercise for 62 girls and women, to equip them with necessary information and materials on chemical classes for liquid soap, Dettol and cream production.
Also, the training would cover bead making, teach the ladies how to tie head scarf(gele), as well as pedicure and manicure .
Ebe, who recently trained 20 women in Mpape, told Inside Abuja that the idea behind making the ladies learn and acquire vocational skills was to assist them become self sustained and to teach them to always believe in themselves by engaging in different types of business rather than relying on the men for their means of survival.
“It is more honourable to have a means of livelihood and grow a business than to rely on the government or individuals to meet their needs on a daily basis.
We are seeking for ways of empower- ing them and making them better individuals. This will give them an opportunity to choose from all the skills they learnt at the end of the training and be able to stand out on one particular skill.”
Committed to ensuring those free from HIV protect themselves from contracting sexually transmitted diseases and other forms of disease affecting females, Ebe took time, advising the ladies on preventive methods.
Taking a step further, sanitary pads, condoms, antiseptic and liquid soaps were distributed to the ladies. “It is very essential to use condom when engaging in sexual activity with your partner.
Do not hesitate or wait till tomorrow as you cannot detect disease with mere eyes. We have provided means of doing voluntary counseling and testing through AIDS healthcare foundation (AHF), which will give you follow up treatment after the diagnosis,” Ebe said.
She urged Nigerians not to judge women who indulge in sex trade from afar, saying that,”we should learn to show love to them and not chastise them, because we don’t know where they are coming from and what they have been through.
Most of these ladies happen to start this kind of life due to being single mothers ” Capitalising on the Valentine
Post-recession: Savouring gains of diversification
With the recent economic recession over, the Federal Government has shifted focus to non-oil sector with emphasis on agriculture and solid minerals where lies huge economic potential. reports Abudlwahab Isa
Many are of the opinion that the last economic recession was self-inflicted, induced by over dependence on crude oil and absence of elaborate plan for diversification.
With the economy out of the woods due to rapid deployment of various policy instruments and miraculous rebound in crude oil price, there is a renewed push to escalate the huge potential in the non-oil sector of the economy with agriculture and solid minerals taking the lead.
Interestingly, the Federal Government, having seen the danger of relying predominantly on crude oil with all its unpredictable vagaries, initiated reforms in these alternative sectors for economic value addition.
Besides the steps taken to boost the agric sector and the gains derived therein so far, a major policy thrust put in place to enhance the sector’s potential is the Agriculture Promotion Policy 2016-2020 document otherwise known as “The Green Alternative,” which is the outcome of an intensive consultative process starting in November 2015 through April 2016 and involving multiple stakeholders.
From farmer groups to investors to processors to lenders to civil servants to academics, many stakeholders provided detailed input, commentary, and support.
While commenting on the initiative, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development expressed gratitude for the resources, energy and intellect put at the disposal of the ministry by parties too numerous to mention for their continued dedication and resolve to build a next generation agribusiness economy in Nigeria.
“Building on the successes and lessons, the vision of the Buhari administration for agriculture is to work with key stakeholders to build an agribusiness economy capable of delivering sustained prosperity by meeting domestic food security goals, generating exports, and supporting sustainable income and job growth.
“Therefore in 2016 to 2020, Nigeria’s policy now needs to be readjusted to solve the aforementioned challenges. The go forward federal priorities (in partnership with state governments) will be the following four: food security; import substitution; job creation; and economic diversification,” FMARD noted.
On the other hand, is the sold minerals sector with large deposits of about 44 minerals located in different parts of the country.
These include glass sand, limestone, salt, shale, ball clay, galena, granite, marble, laterite, bentonite, phosphate, kaolin, pyrite, feldspar, lignite, gypsum, sphalerite, clay to mention just a few.
Sadly, these minerals were long abandoned in preference for crude oil until recently when concerted efforts are being made to give them priority attention.
Going by the current economic blueprint, the Economic Recovery and Growth Plan, the Federal Government envisages to grow the solid mineral sector’s Gross Domestic Products (GDP) to N141 billion at an average annual growth of 8.54 per cent between (2017- 2020) from the N103 billion in 2015.
Streaming revenue profile
The revenue stream from solid mineral sector is still low compared to earnings from crude oil. However, it is steadily improving on the strength of reforms and overhaul of the sector. Unlike previous dispensations when solid minerals paid no dime to the federation account, it is a different ball game today.
For instance, the sector remitted about N14. 6 billion in to the federation account in the last eight years.
A breakdown of the remittances to showed that in 2009, solid minerals revenue paid to the federation account was N931.7 million, N1.2 billion in 2010; it increased to N 1.3 billion in 2011 and N1.8 billion in 2012.
Similarly, the sector’s remittance stood at N 2.037 billion in 2013, N2.3 billion in 2014, N2.085 billion in 2015 and N2.8 billion in 2016.
As recent as last December 2017, revenue performance report of the Ministry of Mines and Steel Development (MMSD) showed that the sum of N413 million was collected and paid to the federation account, an amount higher than November figure of N397.4 million.
The December figure was higher than the ministry’s monthly target of N262.22 billion by N150.77 billion indicating an increase of 57.50 per cent. Outstanding balance in the revenue account as of December 2017 stood at N8.5 billion.
Commenting on the huge potential of solid mineral sector at a recent interview with New Telegraph, Acting Chairman, RMAFC, Alhaji Shettima Umar Abba Gana, said the commission’s effort to achieve resource diversification was paying off.
Abba Gana confirmed that as applicable to oil producing states, 13 per cent derivation was currently being paid to states whose solid minerals revenue is paid into federation account.
“The result has been very positive. The reason we took that line was simply because depending on only one source, oil, for revenue has opened Nigeria to vicissitude of oil price fluctuations. If we are going to diversify, the revenue commission has identified two veritable sources of income. The solid minerals and agriculture.
“Apart from their high potential in Nigeria, the two sectors are conveniently available in every state and every local government in equal proportion. That means unlike oil, which is located in five or about six states, there is presence of solid minerals everywhere. Every local government and state will benefit from derivation fund. The commission for the first time about two years ago worked out the 13 per cent derivation of solid minerals.
“About N15 billion was collected as taxes and royalties from solid minerals and included in the sharing formula as applicable to the 13 per cent of oil revenue. We wanted the states to see the benefits of allowing solid minerals to be developed because they will also earn 13 per cent of whatever revenue that comes out of solid minerals so developed. That was the main reason why we pursued the diversification of revenue across states and local governments.”
Blocking revenue leakages
To ensure maximum revenue is raked in by the Federal Government from the sector, government is leaving no stone unturned in blocking leakages.
It has therefore engaged the services of about 100 revenue consultants to work on areas of leakages in revenue accruing from the mining sector, with a view to shoring up earnings.
The consultants to be deployed to the six geo-political zones of the country in the coming week are to examine financial and production records of companies involved in mining activities in the last six years in order to determine whether appropriate royalties were remitted to government.
Minister of Mines and Steel Development, Dr Kayode Fayemi, disclosed the new step recently during the opening of a three-day induction and training for the revenue consultants in Abuja.
He said the main target of the ministry was to ensure that the Federation Account gets its fair due in royalties and taxes.
“Our expectation of this project is that the ministry would emerge as a lead revenue agency for the Federal Government of Nigeria in line with the growth projections of the Economic Recovery and Growth Plan (ERGP), which recognises the mining sector as one of Nigeria’s most promising growth sectors and acknowledges that its contribution to GDP doubled from N52 billion in 2010 to N103 billion in 2015.
“The ERGP further projects that revenue from the mining sector would grow from N103 billion (2015) to N141 billion (2020) at an average annual growth rate of 8.54 per cent (2017-2020)”
Dr Fayemi said he was optimistic that the ministry would surpass these targets, as all stakeholders work collaboratively to ensure the success of the R.O.V. Project, resulting in improved levels of voluntary compliance of operators.
The minister admitted that leakages in government revenue was a big challenge in the mining sector, a development, which, he said, the ministry was determined to redress with the ROV Project, following its approval by the National Economic Council (NEC).
The biggest headache troubling the mining sector, however, remains the activities of illegal miners. While their activities pre-date the current administration, the minister in conjunction with other stakeholders have mapped out plans to get rid of them. Quite a number of culprits, who were nabbed, are currently facing prosecution.
There is a refreshing confidence that given the level of reforms in both agric and solid minerals sectors to ensure their economic viability and make it attractive to genuine investors, both have the potential of becoming Nigeria’s next cash cow and capable of replacing crude oil.
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