The replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tubes (CRT) screen displays box television with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as plasma displays, liquid crystal displays (LCDs), light emitting diodes (LED), organic light emitting diodes (OLED) displays and Quantum light emitting diodes (QLED) displays, was a hardware revolution of television that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s.Science writer, STANLEY CHIBUIHEM AMALAHA, X-rays the revolution that has taken place recently in the popular household gadget
A television set, otherwise called television, TV set, TV, or telly for short, is a device that combines a tuner, display, amplifier, and speakers for the purpose of watching television and hearing its audio components. Introduced in late 1920’s in mechanical form, television sets became a popular consumer product after World War II in electronic form, using cathode ray tubes.
The addition of colour to broadcast television after 1953 further increased the popularity of television sets and an outdoor antenna became a common feature of suburban homes. The ubiquitous television set became the display device for recorded media in the 1970s, such as Betamax and VHS, which enabled viewers to record TV shows and watch prerecorded movies.
Are you still of the opinion that all televisions are the same? Then you are making a great mistake of the century. Since the beginning of this century, modern technology has revolutionized the concept of television. For example, the colonial box TV, which utilizes the mechanism of cathode ray tube (CRT), was earlier replaced by the Plasma display and later by the liquid crystal display LCD type. As technology improves, these televisions are gradually facing extinction. Today LED, OLED and the Quantum display type (QLED) are demystifying the future of television technology.
The invention of the first mechanical television in 1926 by the Scotsman John Logie Baird, paved a great way for the modern electronic television. The later was pioneered in 1929 by two Russian engineers,Vladimir Zworykin, who emigrated to the US in 1919, and Isaac Shoenberg, to Britain, in 1914.However, before these men, different scientists and engineers had earlier helped in the invention or development of television. For example, the first demonstration of the live transmission of images was by Georges Rignoux and A. Fournier in Paris in 1909.
In 2013, 79% of the world’s households owned a television set. The replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube (CRT) screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as plasma displays, liquid crystal displays (LCDs), light emitting diodes ( LED), and organic light emitting diodes ( OLED) displays, was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel, mainly LEDs. Major manufacturers had discontinued the production of CRT, DLP, plasma, and even fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are gradually expected to be replaced by OLEDs.
The word television, comes from the Greek word ‘tèle’, meaning ‘far’, and the Latin word ‘visio’, meaning ‘sight’. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist ConstantinPerskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from August 18 to 25, 1900, during the International World Fair in Paris. The Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still “…a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires”.
Scottish inventor John Logie Baird demonstrated the world’s first color transmission on July 3, 1928, using scanning discs at the transmitting and receiving ends with three spirals of apertures, each spiral with filters of a different primary colour; and three light sources at the receiving end, with a commutator to alternate their illumination. Baird also made the world’s first colour broadcast on February 4, 1938, sending a mechanically scanned 120-line image from Baird’s Crystal Palace studios to a projection screen at London’s Dominion Theatre.
The advent of digital television allowed innovations like smart TVs. A smart television, sometimes referred to as connected TV or hybrid TV, is a television set or settop box with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 features, and is an example of technological convergence between computers, television sets and set-top boxes.
Smart TV should not to be confused with Internet TV, Internet Protocol television (IPTV) or with Web TV. Internet television refers to the receiving of television content over the Internet instead of by traditional systems – terrestrial, cable and satellite (although internet itself is received by these methods).
IPTV is one of the emerging Internet television technology standards for use by television broadcasters. Web television (WebTV) is a term used for programs created by a wide variety of companies and individuals for broadcast on Internet TV. Smart TVs are expected to become dominant form of television soon.
CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT) The cathode ray tube (CRT) locally known as box television, is a vacuum tube containing one or more electron guns (a source of electrons or electron emitter) and a fluorescent screen used to view images. It has a means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam(s) onto the screen to create the images. In television sets and computer monitors, the entire front area of the tube is scanned repetitively and systematically in a fixed pattern called a raster.
PLASMA DISPLAY PANEL (PDP)
A plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays. They are called “plasma” displays because the technology utilizes small cells containing electrically charged ionized gases, or what are in essence chambers more commonly known as fluorescent lamps.
LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD)
Liquid-crystal-display televisions (LCD TV) are television sets that use LCD display technology to produce images. LCD televisions are much thinner and lighter than cathode ray tube (CRTs) of similar display size, and are available in much larger sizes (e.g., 90 inch diagonal). When manufacturing costs fell, this combination of features made LCDs practical for television receivers. LCD’s come in two types: those using cold cathode fluorescent lamps, simply called LCDs and those using LED as backlight called as LEDs.
LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE (LED)
An LED display is a flat panel display, which uses an array of light-emitting diodes as pixels for a video display. Their brightness allows them to be used outdoors in store signs and billboards, and in recent years they have also become commonly used in destination signs on public transport vehicles.
ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE (OLED)
An OLED (organic light-emitting diode) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound which emits light in response to an electric current. This layer of organic semiconductor is situated between two electrodes. Generally, at least one of these electrodes is transparent. OLEDs are used to create digital displays in devices such as television screens. It is also used for computer monitors, portable systems such as mobile phones, handheld games consoles and PDA.
QUANTUM LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (QLED)
Samsung has just unveiled a new QLED TV range at CES 2017, which might just be the finest “TVs available when they launch. ‘Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diode’. (QLED) is essentially a new variation on the quantum-dot TV technology.
“Quantum dots are tiny particles of between two and 10 nanometres in diameter. They’re employed in displays due to their ability – in conjunction with other materials – to give off different colours according to their size.
The advantage of this is that they have four times higher resolution than the LEDs and are capable of emitting brighter, more vibrant, and more diverse colours – the sort of colours that really make high definition resolution (HDR) content shine.
QLED, therefore, theoretically combines the best of quantum dot and OLED technology – the clarity and deep blacks of OLED, the superior brightness and colour gamut of quantum dots – and results in a package that could boast a 30-40% luminance efficiency advantage, as well as helping lower power consumption., QLED isn’t just OLED TV with quantum dots – it’s an entirely new technology that promises the benefits of both,” says Professor Ike Mowette, Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering,University of Lagos. QLEDs are expected to replace other forms of display in near future.
Residents to IGP: We’re no longer safe in Abuja
In recent months, the Federal Capital Territory has witnessed an upsurge in crime, a situation that has attracted the attention of the security agencies. EMMANUEL ONANI reports
The Nigeria Police is the lead agency in crime fighting and prevention. As a matter of fact, the Police’s vision had been: “To make Nigeria safer and more secure for economic development and growth; to create a safe and secure environment for everyone living in Nigeria”.
How much of this vision has been cascaded to the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Police Command, within the context of fighting crime and criminality within and around the city?
A cross section of residents of the FCT, who spoke with Inside Abuja, showed “loss of confidence” in the crime-fighting capacity of the Police, in the face of prevailing realities.
In separate encounters, the consensus was that: criminal elements in the mould of armed robbers, car-snatchers, ‘one chance’, ritualists among other violent characters, now violate the city’s otherwise impregnable sanctity with audacious impunity.
The case of two female lawyers
Two female lawyers were the first to tell their distasteful tales of woes occasioned by the state of insecurity in the FCT.
Barrister Paulyn (surname withheld) said: “I was done for the day and since I didn’t drive, I stopped at Area 11 junction (by Total Filling Station), to board a vehicle to Masaka.
“About twenty minutes after, a Golf car with just a male occupant pulled over, with echo of ‘Masaka Masaka’.
“I boarded, and shortly after take-off, the supposed ‘passenger’ brought out a knife that shone like a spotless glass, and threatened to kill me if I dared to scream.
“Throughout the period they drove me to their den, there was no single policeman on the road, at least to boost my courage, to scream for help.
“My brother, I was lucky that they only took my expensive phone and all the cash I had in my bag.”
Another female lawyer, who gave her name simply as Beauty, narrated her ordeal thus: “I had a matter at Zone 2 Magistrate Court last week and like other learned colleagues, I parked my car around the court’s vicinity and went in.
“Within a space of an hour, I got back to find that my handbag, which I had hidden in the car, had been stolen with other valuable items.
“Please, help tell the police to wake up to the sorry state of security in Abuja.”
How we got robbed around minister’s hill (Anonymous):
Another victim of armed robbery, who chose to remain anonymous for fear of the unknown, said: “We were returning home through the single end of the Kubwa – Abuja expressway, when our car showed a sign of malfunction.
“We stopped to check and like a bolt from the blue, some thieves numbering about four, emerged from one of the known forests there, and dispossessed us of all valuable items. We were lucky to return home alive.”
Inside Abuja was told how a man, who parked his car within the Diamond area (Wuse 11), returned to find, that “his car had been burgled, and an i-pad and other items stolen.
The reports are endless! Another ugly story was told of how a couple riding in a sports utility vehicle (SUV) to Games Village, had the side glass shattered with a metal, while waiting to be passed at the traffic light junction.
Just when you thought it was abating, came this one from CITEC Estate, where a resident complained of an attack on his way back home.
“My brother, these boys hit and collected everything I had on me without help from any policeman”, a visibly angry victim said.
Hear another victim: “I parked my car about 300 metres away from Holy Trinity Catholic Church, Maitama.
“Guess what I saw barely 30 minutes after? They had taken down the glass of my car, and bolted with my laptop and other expensive items.”
About a week ago, the Commissioner of Police in charge of the Command, Mr. Sadiq Bello, had made public the discovery of an illegal arms factory somewhere in Zuba.
In the face of the growing disruptions, however, the Police had sued for collaboration, with a view to fighting crimes, especially incidents of car theft.
“As a result of the seeming rise in cases of theft of motor vehicles within FCT, especially the ones that are easily removed from where parked, the FCT Police Command is poised to take necessary action to stem the tide of the menace.
“The Command is going to embark on vigorous stop and search along the highways as such members of the public are hereby advised to always have proof of ownership of their cars in their possession to avoid embarrassment”, the Command had said in a statement.
In the wake of the discovery of the illegal arms factory, the CP had, while addressing some journalists, said: “Following intelligence and discreet Police investigation, operatives of the Command have uncovered an illegal firearm fabricating factory located around Shenagu village near Zuba.
“During a raid on the factory, three suspects were arrested. They include the owner of the factory, Philip John, the supplier of ammunitions, Mr Onyegabueze Okpara and the distributor of the arms, one Joseph Bulus”.
Unn pharmacy building for commissioning
The new three-storey building of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, will be commissioned soon. Science writer, STANLEY CHIBUIHEM AMALAHA, in an interview with Prof. Godswill C. Onunkwo, Dean of the Faculty, reports
All is set for the commissioning of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences’s new three-storey building at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
The building, built by TETFUND, will accommodate seven department s of the faculty: According to Prof. Godswill C. Onukwo, Dean of the faculty, “The Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences started in 1967 as the Department of Pharmacy in the Faculty of Science. Because of the Nigerian Civil War (1967-1970) ,the department did not function actively until 1970.
It was elevated to the status of faculty in 1980, originally with four departments.
At present, the faculty has seven departments namely: Pharmaceutics with Dr. Paul Akpa as the Head; Microbiology/Biotechnology, with Prof. Emma Ibezim as the Head; Pharmaceutical Technology & Industrial Pharmacy, with Prof. Sabinus Ofoefule as the Head.
Others include ; Pharmaceutical Chemistry, headed by Prof. Mrs. Ngozi Nwodo; Pharmacology & Toxicology, by Dr. Mrs. Adaobi Ezike; Pharmacognosy, Prof. Mrs. Stella Inyi-Agha; and Clinical Pharmacy with Dr. Chukwuemeka Ubaka as the Head”.
Prof. Onunkwo further expressed delight with TETFUND and the university’s Vice Chancellor, Prof. Benjamin Ozumba for the successful construction of the gigantic three-storey building.
Physics Writers Series Creation produces university physics textbooks
Stories Stanley Chibuihem Amalaha
Eggheads from different Nigerian universities under the umbrella titled: Physics writers Series Creation, have produced array of textbooks in physics for Nigerian students. According to Prof. P.N. Okeke, a world renowned Physicist and president of the association, who initiated the project: “Physics Writers Series Creation is a compendium of seasoned physics lecturers from 20 universities in the South East and South South Nigeria. These lecturers decided to collaborate in the writing and production of different physics textbooks for Nigerian students. The aim is to make physics books easily accessible to our students and to reduce high cost of importation of foreign physics textbooks. It also serves as an academic training for physics lecturers in Nigerian universities because we use local examples in our environment as example in the illustrations in the book for more comprehension for students.
Prof. Okeke further highlighted on the books.
“Some of the textbooks we have produced include; Practical Physics texts; Mechanics/Properties of Matter/Thermal Physics; Electromagnetism/ Modern Physics/ Waves & Optics. These three books cover the syllabus for first year science/engineering courses in Nigerian universities which will help to equip our students in their fields of endevour. Other textbooks we have successfully produced for physics Majors includes: Introduction to Space Science, Special theory of relativity etc.
Prof. P.N. Okeke is a Professor Emeritus of physics & astronomy. He is the best author of physics textbook in West Africa who makes Physics easy and enjoyable in both secondary and tertiary levels.
He is the first African author of astronomy and space science textbooks. The first Director of NASRDA Centre for Basic Science in Nigeria. The first president of African Astronomical Society. He is a world figure with many international collaborations and discoveries.
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