Apart from the suspects, only very Nigerians can identify the faces of anti-corruption operatives who were actively involved in the investigation of several high-profile cases of money laundering in the country. The officers, mostly in the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), have their names and identities hidden from the public glare because they investigate highly complex risky cases of financial crimes.
The identity of one of the dogged anti-fraud operatives was recently unveiled by the pioneer Chairman of EFCC, Mallam Nuhu Ribadu, at a presentation of a book on anti-money laundering (AML).
Launching the book, “Improving Anti-Money Laundering Compliance: Self-protecting Theory and Money Laundering Reporting Officers” by Dr. Bello Abdullahi Usman, Nuhu Ribadu described the author as a thorough, disciplined and intelligent investigator who had handled high profile cases at the ant-corruption agency.
Dr. Bello, the author of the book, holds a PhD in Anti-Money Laundering Compliance. He also obtained a degree in Applied Accounting from Oxford Brookes University, and a Post Graduate Diploma in Islamic Banking and Insurance from the Institute of Islamic Banking and Insurance, UK.
Bello is also Chartered Certified Accountant (ACCA), Certified Anti-Money Laundering Specialist (CAMS) and a Certified Fraud Examiner (CFE). He was the Deputy Head of Department, Monitoring and Analysis at the Nigeria Financial Intelligence Unit and the Head of Forensic Accounting and Financial Investigation at the EFCC. He was also a lecturer at Newcastle Business School, UK and a former banker. He is currently the Managing Consultant at Abdubel Consulting, a Forensic Accounting, Financial Intelligence Analysis and Anti-Money Laundering firm located in Abuja.
At the book presentation, Ribadu said: “Dr Abdullahi Bello is no doubt a thorough professional and authority in this particular area, and any offering from him should be taken with all seriousness. He is a rounded expert that was from the financial sector background and has worked as a law enforcement officer to the satisfaction of his superiors.”
Ribadu recalled how Bello among few others were poached from the financial sector to help in cracking the nut of money laundering. He said Bello particularly worked on a number of very key cases, and provided links that helped in the process of investigation and prosecution.
Reviewing the book at the occasion, former Director General of the Inter-Governmental Action Group against Money Laundering in West Africa (GIABA), Professor Abdullahi Shehu said that the book provides recommendations on how to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of Anti-Money Laundering Law compliance by introducing the theory, framework and approach for dealing with the concerns of money Laundering Reporting Officers within the banking industry.
Also speaking as the chairman of the occasion, the Governor of Central Bank of Nigeria(CBN), Mr. Godwin Emefiele, said the author produced a timely scholarly material in understanding the theoretical framework on anti-money laundering and how the flow of illicit financial transactions can be curtailed and combatted globally. He therefore recommended the book for policy makers, scholars, bankers and students as he bought copies for Central Bank and selected financial institutions and libraries in Nigeria.
Going through the copy of the 207-page book, the author explains the dilemma encountered by reporting institutions, particularly designated Money Laundering Reporting Officers (MLROs).
The chapter one introduces the money laundering as a global phenomenon and the challenges of compliance with acceptable international standards against money laundering from the perspective of the MLROs. The chapter also outlines the aims and objectives of the book, which is to provide an understanding of the AML environment from the perspective of MLROs and suggests an effective and efficient approach to compliance among other objectives.
While chapter two provides the background and context on the legal framework for AML and the role of international organisations in setting standards, chapter three justifies the articulation of the “Self-Protecting Theory” by presenting the main thrusts and key elements of discharging, complying, communicating and complaining.
The Chapter 4 reviews some literature on regulation and in particular the challenges of AML compliance while the Chapter five demonstrates the academic and theoretical prowess of the author in analysing in detail the concept of “self-protecting theory.”
The Chapter six generalizes the theory to other areas of human endeavour by integrating it into other theories in social and management sciences. While the concluding Chapter seven, the author posits that his “self-protecting theory” emerged out of the exigencies of defective regulation based on a risk based approach, which did not take into account the constraints, limitations and challenges of MLROs and their organisations.
Apart from the depth of theoretical and eloquent presentation in an academic style of narration, the book largely focuses on the United Kingdom rather than Nigeria, the author’s home country. His grounded theoretical analysis was based on research and interviews conducted amongst reporting officers in the UK on “Self-Protecting Theory.” He could have made a comparative analysis of the challenges of regulation across the United Kingdom and Nigeria to represent the challenges and similarities between the two continents of Africa and the Europe.
Nevertheless, the scholarly book has made significant contributions to the evolution of self-protecting theory on anti-money laundering.
I therefore join Ambassador Ibrahim Yerima Abdullahi, who at the official presentation recommended the book for policy makers, bankers, legislators and those involved in anti-money laundering campaigns.
• Shuaib is the Publisher of PRNigeria and Economic Confidential
El-Rufai and the arrogance of power
Kaduna State Governor, Mallam Nasiru el-Rufai, likes controversy. And this predilection did not start when he became the governor. He has attracted criticisms from many sources in the past. Some of his critics feel he has unbridled lips or caustic tongue and people with such idiosyncracies are always controversial.
But to his admirers, el-Rufai is smart. He will call a spade a spade rather than describing it as a gardening tool. He is bold, daring and never afraid of carrying out his will once he’s convinced about it. The governor got people talking on Tuesday when the Kaduna State Urban Planning and Development Agency (KASAUDA) demolished the house of Senator Suleiman Hunkuyi, the lawmaker representing Kaduna North Central senatorial district. The house was used as the secretariat of a faction of the All Progressives Congress (APC) in the state. The faction, which operates under the aegis of APC’s “Restoration” group, is being promoted by the senator.
But how rational is the rationale given by the Director General of Kaduna Geographic Information System (KADGIS), Ibrahim Husseini, that the building was guilty of “flagrant violations of the land use and non-payment of ground rent since 2010?” Is the reason in any way different from the typical give a dog a bad name so as to justify why it deserves to be hanged?
The governor perhaps, must have been pained by the audacity of the “Restoration” group, which issued him a query over alleged anti-party activities and subsequently “suspended” him for six months for not replying the “query.” Could it be that the issuance of “query,” “suspension” of the governor and the demolition of the senator’s house are mere coincidences? For the sake of argument, let me concede that they are.
If they are, they are bad ones that will make the senator attract pity and sympathy while El-rufai is viewed from the prism of a civilian dictator, who still finds Machiavellianism attractive in a democratic setting.
The governor is a smart man and I wondered how he should be worried that a faction he does not belong to suspended him. It was even alleged that the state government had a few months back marked another property of the senator for demolition but the residents of the area prevented the demolition. Could it then be the reason the senator’s property on 11B Sambo Road was demolished with soldiers providing cover for KASAUDA’s officials in the early hours of Tuesday? Of course, if rules had been violated, there should be consequences. But they must not be devoid of the rule of law and due process.
Are outright demolition and revocation of the property’s documents the normal process? While awaiting the court’s verdict on this since the PAC faction had resolved to seek redress in court, I found it curious that state government had issued a 30-day ultimatum to Hunkuyi to pay N30 million as ground rent to avoid demolition of another propert. On the one hand, this shows that the senator’s demolished property could have been precipitately done except if same number of days were given before it was pulled down. On the other hand, if the senator had indeed contravened the laws, he should be ready to bear the brunt and come to the reality that the rich also cry.
That it pleases the state government to look the other way for years if he indeed ran afoul of the law does not make it right that the senator cannot be punished. And it will serve as a lesson that laws respect no one except those who respect themselves and obey the laws. It is not in doubt that in Nigeria, big men choose the laws to obey. And ironically, they expect the common man to obey even the ones they disobey.
My concern is about what the laws say and due process. As long as we continue to emphasise money in our politics, the scenario that is playing out in Kaduna and elsewhere will continue to rear its ugly head. Governors will always want to assume leadership of the political parties they belong to in their states. And this will always generate issues once the party executives want to have a voice of theirs independent of the dictates of the governors.
The same scenario plays out at the federal level where the president is the Alpha and Omega in his party. Political parties lack the courage to discipline errant governors even if there is enough ground to show that parties’ rules have been breached. This explains the difference in how political parties are run in Nigeria and South Africa, where party supremacy is sacrosanct. A Jacob Zuma in Nigeria would have gone away with all his atrocities and may even determine who becomes the party’s chairman.
Unfortunately, the power play in Kaduna is not about good governance. It’s about individuals’ ego and selfish interest. As for Governor el-Rufai, it is in his interest to promote common good instead of fighting battles that will clothe him in the garment of a dictator who hates opposition with passion and will kill a fly with a sledge hammer if it expresses different political ideologies.
For a man who many believe has his eyes on the most exalted political seat in the land, he should avoid issues that can become a reference point, that he is too temperamental to tolerate an opposing view.
His handling of the APC crisis in the state is already making some people to have a re-think on how some governors will make use of state police despite the huge advantages that come with the clamour that truly defines what federalism is. In his book, ‘The Prince’, Niccolo Machiavelli, recommends six character and behaviour for princes. Two of those recommendations interest me, the first being: “it is better to be cruel than merciful.”
This cynical disregard for moral rectitude and promotion of self-aggrandizement appear to be the driving force behind dictatorship. But still talking about how to acquire and maintain political power, Machiavelli postulates that: “Princes must avoid making themselves hated and despised; the goodwill of the people is a better defence than any fortress.”
The two recommendations seem an interesting paradox. But I am more at home with the second one because of its tendency to promote greater good for the generality of the people if leaders make use of it. In his dissection of Machiavellian recommendation that: “it is better to be cruel than merciful,” Professor Dacher Keltner, in his book titled: ‘The Power Paradox,’ took Machiavelli to the cleaners in his “revolutionary rethinking of everything we know about power,” describing some of the Italian author’s recommendations as “old school view,” adding that: “The new science of power shows that our Machiavellian view of status is wrong.”
The celebrated professor of Psychology from the University of California, Berkeley, USA, warns that people who feel powerful are more likely to act impulsively and they break the same rule they want others to follow.
Their surroundings are mostly peopled by sycophants and boot lickers who lack modicum of courage to tell truth to the throne for fear of losing out in the corridor of power. Besides, in little or no time, powerful people lose the quality that people saw in them in the first place that made them the obvious choice.
They are induced by seduction of power and the very skills that endeared them to people’s hearts are lost once they assume power. Even if such leaders started well, it is a matter of time before they derail.
There are even cases of complete derailment. They become proud; see things from their world view alone. And the once jolly good fellow, the once revered ‘Man of the people,’ easily becomes an object to despise that nobody wants to touch even with a long pole.
Keltner admonishes that it is in the interest of powerful people to make common good for the generality of the people their watchword and resist the temptation of allowing power go to their heads.
He went ahead to give four warning signs to show leaders who are power drunk. They are: “The leader thinks their rights and needs outweigh those of others and so their decision making is all about what works best for them.
“The leader stops listening to the ideas and opinions of others, believing that their knowledge and insights hold more weight and value than others. “They ignore feedback from people seeing it as unhelpful and irrelevant, rather than reflecting on what is driving the feedback and what they may want to adjust to be more effective. “They believe they are smarter than others and have little more to learn, and so they stop seeking out new ideas and diversity of thought.”
A leader should know how much is too much. And he should always remember that once he starts seeing himself as the smartest person in the room, his instinct should tell him that it’s time to find another room.
When ‘fake news’ is actually ‘genuine news’
Last weekend in faraway Madrid, the Minister of Information and Culture, Alhaji Lai Mohammed, told the whole world that with President Muhammadu Buhari piloting the affairs of Nigeria, the country is in very safe and competent hands, and thus there is no cause for alarm.
The Minister, who spoke at a mini town hall meeting with the staff of the Nigerian Embassy in the Spanish capital and a cross section of Nigerians living in the European country on Saturday, added that contrary to the “fake news” being peddled on the Social Media, Nigeria is making steady progress, especially in revamping the economy, tackling insecurity and fighting corruption; the three cardinal programmes of the Buhari Administration
He said: “Don’t believe everything you read on the Social Media. Nigeria is neither at war nor in crisis.
“Contrary to what you may be reading on the Internet, the Buhari Administration is putting Nigeria on a solid footing, after the years that were eaten by the locust.”
Speaking further, he said naysayers are spending millions of naira to distort the true situation of things in Nigeria and to make the administration look bad.
The Minister added that the administration’s achievements should be evaluated against the background of the tough challenges that it has faced since coming into office on May 29, 2015.
“It is said that if you don’t know where you are coming from, you won’t know where you are going,” he said, listing the drastic fall in the price of crude oil, the low foreign reserves at $24 billion, the fact that the Federal Government was borrowing to pay workers’ salaries and the fact that many states were unable to pay salaries as some of those challenges.
Mohammed also said when the administration came into office, unpaid pensions had run into billions of naira in many states, contractors had abandoned sites across the country because they were being heavily owed, infrastructure was in poor state, power generation was 2,690 megawatts, billions were being paid as fuel subsidies to fat cats, corruption was the order of the day, while 20 of the 27 local governments in Borno State were under the firm control of Boko Haram.
Of course, Alhaji Mohammed was doing the job with which his portfolio insists he carries out which is to propagate the positive sides of the government in which he serves.
However, sadly for the Minister his attempts to lump virtually all reports in the Social Media as “fake news” (à la a certain Donald Trump?) is for me taking it a bit too far.
Yes, while it is true that a lot of news in the Social Media is fake and cannot be substantiated, that does not mean that every news item in the Social Media can be dismissed with the same wand.
Only recently, the whole world was tuned into a school in the US state of Florida when another mass shooting at an educational institution took place with the loss of 17 innocent souls by a disgruntled expelled student.
The incident, the 17th school shooting to have taken place in the US this year alone was carried by both the regular media and Social Media platforms.
However, what is even more impressive was the fact that the media (whether regular or Social) did not stop at just reporting the shooting incident, but went further to expose the fact that America’s top law enforcement agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), had been warned of the possibility that Nikolas Cruz, the shooter, was a danger to society, but the agency failed to act with dire consequences.
Now wait for it, rather than the agency in question (FBI) adopting a siege mentality and dismissing the allegations as false (and even hiring people to defend them in the media) they owned up that they had actually received the information but deemed it not serious enough for further action.
The Bureau’s Director, Christopher Wray immediately acknowledged the lapse and promptly released a statement: “It is now clear that the warning signs were there and tips to the FBI were missed. We see the tragic consequences of those failures. We are still investigating the facts. I am committed to getting to the bottom of the incident.”
This is in spite of the fact that the agency receives thousands of reports every day of potential danger, making it not humanely possible to properly treat all of them!
Back home in Nigeria, the Governor of Zamfara State, Abdulaziz Yari, lamented just like his Benue State counterpart, Samuel Ortom, that they had got wind of the recent attack in which 39 people were slaughtered in Zurmi Local Government Area of the state, and yet the police and other security agencies failed to act.
Till today, the police have not refuted the governor’s claims or given a reasonable explanation as to why the brutal and callous acts have become an almost daily occurrence.
In fact rather than show some level of contrition, the Police spokesman, Mr Jimoh Moshood, in a very un-PRO-like manner called the Benue State governor a “drowning man”!
The PRO has not been punished neither has the police issued a public apology.
I vividly remember while interviewing the then FIFA Secretary General, Sepp Blatter, in Cairo during the FIFA U17 World Cup, which the North African country hosted in 1997, I asked him how FIFA acted on reports that they used to prevent Nigeria from hosting the U20 World Cup in 1995 and he pointedly told me that besides the regular media channels (back then there was no Social media), they had other sources to verify what is happening in their member nations.
FIFA had withdrawn the hosting rights close to the 1995 edition on the grounds of a meningitis outbreak in Nigeria.
It is the same thing with other governments and potential investors who have their ways of checking on the country they want to put their investments in.
So in as much as Alhaji Mohammed is right to portray the government in a positive light; he should also be quick to acknowledge flaws were necessary; because it is not possible to gloss over the loss of 73 lives in one night in Benue State or the murder of another 39 in Zamfara State or the multiple suicide blasts in Borno which left 18 dead and more than 50 others injured or the recent attack on a girls’ school in Yobe State.
Like we were told in Advertising/Public Relations 101 course, “A good product does not need much advertising or public relations”.
As soon as things generally improve in the country, no minister will need to tell us because both we the citizens living in Nigeria and those in other countries will notice the improvement!
- Fire! Fire!! Fire!!!
Fire in my breadbasket,Unquenchable with water,Flaming in my belly
Fire! Fire!! Fire!!!
Fire in my chest,Far from a retardant’s reach,My heart is on fire
- Ethanol I gulp,Tobacco I chew,Intensified the agony becomes,I’ve been set aglow within.
Hot pepper I guzzle,Spiced plantain I gobble,Bloated my stomach becomes,I am burning up.
In the last one week, there’s been an upsurge in stomach related symptoms in a Lagos community which has been ascribed to a new local alcoholic beverage in town. It was said to be a mixture of concentrated alcohol spiced with spicy herbs and alligator pepper!
Miss OPK walked into the consulting room clutching the upper part of the tummy, complaint was that of central upper abdomen pain. This symptom have been on and off over the last 3 years, usually brought on by hunger and her favorite (fried plantain), but relieved by milk. The most recent episode started 4 days prior to hospital visit.
This is classical of Peptic Ulcer Disease.
What it is
Peptic ulcers are sores that develop in the lining of the stomach, lower esophagus, or small intestine. They’re usually formed as a result of inflammation caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, as well as from erosion from stomach acids. Most ulcers happen because of infection with the bacteria. An ulcer in the stomach is known as a gastric ulcer while that in the first part of the intestines is known as a duodenal ulcer.
The offending bacteria
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria transmitted via contaminated food, water (or other drinks) or utensils. It’s more common in countries or communities that lack clean water or good sewage systems. It can also be picked up through contact with the saliva or other body fluids of infected people.
It was discovered in 1982 and has been found to be the cause of most ulcers. These germs can enter the body and live in the digestive tract. After many years, they can cause sores, called ulcers, in the lining of your stomach or the upper part of your small intestine. Infection with H. pylori is common. About two-thirds of the world’s population has it in their bodies. For most people, it doesn’t cause ulcers or any other symptoms.
After H. pylori enters your body, it attacks the lining of the stomach, which usually protects one from the acid the body uses to digest food. Once the bacteria have done enough damage, acid can get through the lining, which leads to ulcers. These may bleed, cause infections, or keep food from moving through the digestive tract. Many people get H. pylori during childhood, but adults can get it too. The germs live in the body for years before symptoms start, but most people who have it will never get ulcers.
What gives it away
The most common symptoms of a duodenal ulcer are waking at night with upper abdominal pain or upper abdominal pain that improves with eating. With a gastric ulcer the pain may worsen with eating as gastric acid production is increased as food enters the stomach . The pain is often described as a burning or dull ache. Other symptoms may include bloating, belching, farting, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, vomiting of blood or passage of dark stool (both could point to bleeding) weight loss (in gastric ulcer), water brash (rush of saliva after an episode of regurgitation to dilute the acid in esophagus ) and foul breath (halitosis).
Infection with H.pylori, some types of pain medications (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-NSAIDS), taking some other medications along with NSAIDS (such as such as steroids, anticoagulants, low-dose aspirin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors- SSRIs etc) can greatly increase the chance of developing ulcers. Though stress, spicy foods, alcohol, and smoking don’t cause ulcers, they can keep them from healing quickly or make it worse and intake of caffeine/coffee is also said to be less contributory.
A comprehensive history and examination followed by some tests.
1. Laboratory tests for H. pylori; This is to determine whether the bacterium H. pylori is present in the body. It can be detected using a blood, stool or breath test (Urea Breath Test-UBT) The breath test is the most accurate.
2. Endoscopy; A scope is used to examine the upper digestive system (endoscopy). If an ulcer is detected, small tissue samples (biopsy) may be removed for examination in a lab.
3. Upper GI series; During the procedure, the client stands or sits in front of an x-ray machine and drink barium, a chalky liquid. Barium coats the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine so the shapes of these organs can be seen more clearly on x-rays.
4. Computer Tomography (CT) scan; can help diagnose a peptic ulcer that has created a hole in the wall of the stomach or small intestine.
Gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation (leading to peritonitis), Anemia, Stomach (gastric) outlet obstruction and in the long term may lead to cancer.
Drugs that reduce acid secretion and appropriate antibiotics to eradicate H. pylori.
You can protect yourself from getting an H. pylori infection with the same steps you take to keep other germs at bay; 1. Basic hand washing hygiene after using the bathroom and before preparing or eating food. 2. Avoid food or water that’s not clean. 3. Do not eat anything that is not cooked thoroughly. 4. Avoid food served by people who are not hygienic.
Please visit a doctor as appropriate as other conditions (such as GERD; literally, heartburn) mimic peptic ulcer.
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