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Persistently blocked and embarrassing runny nose

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Persistently blocked and embarrassing runny nose

The scene
Tdk is in his 3rd decade of life, everyone that knew him in his journey to adulthood has always associated him with unending -never-dry nostrils. Whatever the prevailing weather conditions the ‘’spring’’ never dries. It could be very discomforting and embarrassing as he goes about with packs of tissue paper bruising the delicate lining of the outer nostrils in the process and even had to deal with a superimposed bacterial infection at some point.
He could not estimate the number of inhalers and nasal drops he’s had to use. Countless number of suggestions of unorthodox medications also failed. He continues to wait for a cure that will end this nightmare……………….hopefully, Godot is not the visitor!

What it is
Sinusitis or sinus infection is inflammation of the air cavities within the passages of the nose. Chronic sinusitis, also called chronic rhinosinusitis, is a particularly persistent type of sinusitis. If it lasts for more than 12 weeks, it’s considered chronic sinusitis, whereas if it is an isolated case that goes away on its own within a few weeks, it is called acute sinusitis (short-term cases that come back several times a year are called acute recurrent sinusitis).

About the Sinuses
•The sinuses are hollow air pockets in the bones of the face and head that probably exist to cushion the brain during trauma
The sinuses are lined with a thin layer of tissue that normally makes a small amount of mucus to keep the sinuses healthy and lubricated and flush away germs.
 Rhinosinusitis occurs when the lining of the sinuses gets infected or irritated, become swollen, and create extra mucus.
The swollen lining may also interfere with drainage of mucus.

Symptoms
Sinusitis is considered chronic after symptoms last for more than 12 weeks. Acute sinusitis often happens because of a cold and disappears along with the cold.
You also need to have at least two of the following symptoms for sinusitis to be diagnosed as chronic:
• trouble smelling or tasting food and drinks
• yellow or green-colored mucus dripping from the nose
• dry or hardened mucus blocking the nasal passages
• mucus leaking down the back of your throat (postnasal drip)
• tenderness or discomfort in your face, especially in the area of your eyes, forehead, and cheeks
Other common symptoms of chronic sinusitis include:
• headaches due to pressure and swelling in your sinuses
• pain in your ears
• throat soreness
• jaw and tooth soreness
• feeling nauseous
• cough that feels worse during the night
• bad breath (halitosis)
• Fatigue

Chronic Rhino-sinusitis Risk Factors
Several factors can increase the risk of chronic rhinosinusitis or worsen the symptoms once you have the disorder.
These include:
•Allergies: Allergies are much more common among people with chronic rhinosinusitis than they are among people in the general population. This is especially true of allergies that are present year-round, such as dust mites, animal dander, molds, and cockroaches. Allergies that are poorly controlled can worsen the symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis.
• Exposure to tobacco smoke or airborne irritants: Exposure to cigarette smoke or certain environmental toxins, such as formaldehyde, can increase the risk of chronic rhinosinusitis.
• Immune system disorders: people with certain immune system problems are at increased risk of chronic rhinosinusitis. They may also have recurrent problems with other infections, such as ear and chest infections.
• Viral infections: Some people develop chronic rhinosinusitis after having repeated viral infections (such as the common cold), although it is not clear that the infections actually cause the chronic rhinosinusitis.
•Deviated septum: The piece of cartilage that runs down the midline of the nose and separates the nostrils, called the septum, is not entirely straight in many people. This is a condition called a deviated septum. This may be present from birth or develop later in life as the result of injury to the nose. A deviated septum may cause one nostril to be blocked, but it usually does not cause chronic rhinosinusitis.

Diagnosis
Appropriately made by a doctor

Treatment
These include Lifestyle modifications, Medications and ultimately Surgery

Lifestyle modifications
• Smoking Cessation: People with chronic rhinosinusitis who smoke cigarettes should stop.
• Environmental Allergies: People who have environmental allergies as a contributing factor to their sinus problems may be able to change things in their home or work conditions to reduce exposure to the specific allergens that bother them.
• Most people with chronic rhinosinusitis find that washing their nasal passages daily with saline (salt water) helps reduce symptoms.
• Washing the nose before applying medications also clears away mucus and reduces its interference with medications
• Washing hands frequently to prevent the spread of bacteria and fungi.
• Driving with the windows up and the air conditioning on.
• Drinking plenty of water. Dehydration can make it harder for the body to fight infection and clear the sinuses.
• Apply warm compresses to your face. Place warm, damp towels around your nose, cheeks and eyes to ease facial pain.
• Rest. This will help your body fight inflammation and speed recovery.
•Sleep with your head elevated. This will help your sinuses drain, reducing congestion.

Complications
If left untreated, chronic sinusitis can make it difficult to breathe, which can keep one from being active or getting enough oxygen into the body. Long-term chronic sinusitis can also cause other serious complications, including:
•permanent loss of the ability to smell because of damage to the olfactory nerve, which helps one smell
•loss of vision if an infection spreads to the eyes
•inflammation of the brain and spinal cord membranes (known as meningitis)
• infection spread to the skin or bones.

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